EUROSOL-Solidarity in Times of Crisis

The project European Citizens for Solidarity (EUROSOL), co-funded by the Europe for Citizens programme of the European Union, gathers partners from eight EU member states to promote the European citizens’ solidarity in times of the refugee crisis. The Project...

December 10, 1948: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

By Serena Montefusco

In 1947, a Human Rights Commission, led by Eleanor Roosevelt, a pioneer and fervent supporter of human rights, met to draft what would become the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The Commission was composed of a committee created by the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations of the eight member states selected based on the criterion of the broadest geographical representativeness. The Declaration was presented in September 1948 and adopted a few months later. On December 10, 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was seen as a mere non-legally binding instrument, a “soft law” that laid the solid foundations for the rebirth of consciences shaken by the Second World War. In the following years, it became a crucial instrument of international law to protect fundamental human rights and a pillar of subsequent legally binding conventions and documents.

In October 2005, the General Assembly of UNESCO responded to rapid developments in science and technology and related ethical issues and approved the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. Starting from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, below we would like to present the commitment of the UNESCO Chair of Bioethics and Human Rights. Since its 2009 foundation, the Chair has been and continues to be at the forefront of the dissemination and promotion of universal human rights through projects, study groups, advanced training courses, national and international workshops.

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that “men are born free and equal in dignity and rights”, and have “duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.” (art. 29), It adds that “the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution” (art. 14). As part of the “European Citizens for Solidarity” (EUROSOL) project, co-funded by the Europe for Citizens program, on November 27, 2017, the Chair organized a public forum on the topic of “Human Dignity and Human Rights of Refugees.” The event brought together dozens of experts from eight countries to discuss EU resolutions related to the refugee crisis and propose new strategies and actions to address the urgent issues of the day: promoting intercultural dialogue, combating the stigmatization of migrants, and promoting tolerance and empathy. In addition, through the Bioethics Global Art project, the Bioaesthetics study group and the collaboration with the Fondazione Marianna, of which the Director of the Chair, Prof. Alberto García Gómez is an advisor, the Chair is pioneering the dissemination of human rights through art in all its forms. In 2011, 2013 and 2015, the Chair organized two art competitions and several exhibitions of unique pieces created by international artists committed and sensitive to the struggle for the rights of the most vulnerable.

Article 18, which enshrines freedom of thought, conscience and religion, introduces us to the project Bioethics, Multiculturalism and Religion with which the Chair wants to provide a place for debate where representatives of different religions and traditions can: engage one another in a sustained scholarly dialogue about global bioethics; cultivate an amicable atmosphere so participants can learn about each other’s tradition or religion with discursive empathy; promote mutual understanding of global bioethics through respectful discussion and scholarship; strive to develop the linguistic and conceptual space in which common ground or convergence can emerge and be mutually recognized and appreciated; and finally foster creative cooperation while respecting the dignity and uniqueness of each tradition.

The Chair, in conclusion, seeks to create venues for diverse leaders in bioethical thought. Working together in a spirit of respect and friendship, it aims to provide a common framework to guide the application of bioethical principles in light of the UNESCO Declaration. In this way, ethical, legal, and public views, decisions, and actions related to medicine, life sciences, human rights, and responsibilities can be informed and illuminated.

World Refugee Day

By Serena Montefusco

Last June 20th was World Refugee Day, an occasion for which the Argentinian Embassy to the Holy See organized a morning of reflection on the issue of migration at the headquarters of the Communication Department of the Vatican with a focus on the caravans of migrants typical of South America. This invitation for open dialogue deepened the discussion of Venezuelan migrants.

The Guglielmo Marconi room in Piazza Pia in Rome was packed with familiar faces, such as Ambassador Rogelio Pfirter of the Argentinian Embassy to the Holy See, Fr. Fabio Baggio Undersecretary of the migrants and refugees section of the Dicastery For Promoting Integral Human Development, Andrea Tornielli, editorial director of the Holy See’s Communication Department (Vatican News), Paola Alvarez of the International Organization for Migration, Andrea Pecoraro of UNHCR, Martina Liebsch, director of the Caritas Internationals advocacy office, Sister Eleia Scariot , Scalabrinian missionary and director of the Chaire Gynai project, Gianni la Bella, professor of contemporary history at the University of Modena and member of the presidency council of the community of Sant’Egidio, and finally S.E.R. Archbishop Paul Richard Gallagher, Secretary for Relations with States of the Secretariat of State of the Holy See.

Ambassador Rogelio Pfirter welcomed the participants by introducing the most common reasons why thousands of people are forced to migrate: economic adversity, as the result of persecution or conflict and climatic phenomena. Ambassador Rogelio Pfirter’s commentary emphasized how fundamental it is to establish joint work between states in order to stem the universal problem. The continents most involved are Asia, Europe, Africa and South America. According to the 2016 United Nations report, Venezuelans have become the largest displaced group in the world. In 2016 there were 700,000 displaced Venezuelan migrants, and today there are over 4 million.

On the 29th of September we celebrate the 105th Day of the Migrants and Refugees instituted by Pope Benedict XV in 1914. For this occasion, Pope Francis launched an important message on the 27th of May, “It is not just about migrants, it is about our humanity”, and invites us all not to be afraid of the stranger, or of the unknown, by implementing the charity that resides in our humanity, and not to feed what is called the “globalization of indifference” that separates us from one another. As recalled by Dr. Andrea Tornielli, the family of Nazareth is an example and model in support of all migrants, refugees and displaced persons who, pressed by persecution or need, find themselves forced to flee and to be separated from their loved ones, as Joseph and Mary were. Leaving the word to Fr. Fabio Baggio, Tornielli emphasizes that “states have an evangelical responsibility to support migrants”.

P. Fabio Baggio presented the work that the Church is doing worldwide which involves the 20 points of action of the Global Compact, which we have had the privilege to listen to last May 15th at our Pontifical Athenaeum Regina Apostolorum. The challenges increase every day, and it is necessary to develop effective responses through the creation of assistance centers, housing, jobs, health care and vocational training. These are some of the actions carried out by the section on migrants and refugees that operates worldwide and gives support to the Church by accompanying people at every level of migration.

In the second part of the morning, the round table was chaired by Dr. Paola Alvarez and Dr. Andrea Pecoraro. Both presented the numbers concerning international and regional migration in Latin America, and then in Venezuela.

The International Organization for Migration (IOM) was born in 1951, but only in 2016 did it enter the United Nations system as a connected agency. Today it has 173 member states, a statistic that encourages us to reflect on the magnitude and space it occupies on a global scale. The latest reports show that there are 258 million international migrants and 760 million internal migrants. There is a tendency on the part of the media to focus on international migration, “relying too much on words and not on facts” and giving space to an increasingly distorted perception of the reality of migrants. Alvarez mentions the global compact, based on the goals of the 2030 agenda, to highlight the second point which aims to “minimize the adverse conditions and structural factors that drive people to leave their country of origin”. Leaving the word to Pecoraro, Alvarez adds that “the global compact gives the opportunity to rethink immigration, invites us to think of migration as a choice”.

Andrea Pecoraro presented the work carried out in recent years by the UNHCR which has analyzed the phenomenon of constant migratory growth. According to the UNHCR annual report, forced migrants increased exponentially due to the Syrian conflict. This phenomenon is also manifested in many African regions, which see an increasing number of displaced people in developing countries. There is also a notable increase of migratory growth in South America: the protagonist of the discussion being Venezuela with its aforementioned 4 million displaced persons.

The third part of the morning was dedicated to the testimonies of some projects promoted globally by Caritas, the Scalabrinian Missionary Sisters and the community of Sant’Egidio. The discussion was concluded by S.E.R. Archbishop Paul Richard Gallagher. Dr. Martina Liesbch presented the new campaign “Sharing the journey” on migration. The campaign was launched last September 27th during the Pope’s audience with migrants and aims to promote the culture of encounter and to help see the phenomenon of migration with different eyes. Similarly, Sister Eleia Scariot presented the project of the Scalabrinian Missionary Sisters in Rome “Chaire Gynai” (Welcome Woman) which has opened two houses for refugee women and children in vulnerable situations. In both cases, social inclusion activities are carried out based on the 4 verbs of the Pope: accepting, protecting, promoting and integrating. These words echoed for the whole morning inside of the classroom. Prof. Gianni La Bella, of the Sant’Egidio community, reiterated the importance of promoting humanitarian corridors to establish a system of legal and safe migration. The humanitarian corridors carried out by the community serve as a clear and concrete example that it is possible to regulate the flow of migration.

As anticipated, the morning ended with a concluding statement from Archbishop Gallagher, who reiterated that regulating migration and helping migrants is a global responsibility, as it is also the responsibility of migrants themselves to learn about the culture of the state that welcomes them. The UNESCO Chair supports this strong message through the implementation of the CivicAL project, which foresees the development of chapter 3 of the manual for educators, which concerns the rights and responsibilities of migrants. It is a message that UNESCO Chair has been supporting for some time, and which it has been able to develop on several occasions, such as during the year 2017 when it supported the activities of the Eurosol project together with other partners from different European member states.

An Introspective into Dedicatory Days for Migrants and Refugees

By Madison Silverman

Under the leadership of Deputy Prime Minister Matteo Salvini, Italy’s stance on migration policy has become increasingly hard-lined and uncompromising. The ramifications of this approach affect all of the Euro Area, and perhaps it is for this reason that the United Nations Regional Information Centre for Western Europe has announced that the Italian capital of Rome will be the focus of this year’s World Refugee Day, on June 20th. The aim of World Refugee Day is to “commemorate the strength, courage and perseverance of millions of refugees”.

While World Refugee Day is an event organized by the United Nations and its respective agencies, the Vatican has jointly organized a day to celebrate migrants and refugees. On May 27th, Pope Francis released a message for the 105th World Day of Migrants and Refugees, an event scheduled for September 29th, stating: “Dear brothers and sisters, our response to the challenges posed by contemporary migration can be summed up in four verbs: welcome, protect, promote and integrate”. According to a 2016 poll published by L’Unita, approximately 50% of Italians consider themselves to be Catholic, and so a strange dichotomy is presenting itself in the response to the acceptance of refugees. Italy is becoming increasingly bipolarized and divided on the issue- with some rejecting the arrival of migrants into Italy, and some welcoming them. The response from pro-migration advocates, such as the United Nations and the Vatican, has been to organize different days with a wide variety of activities to further the advancement of the acceptance of migrants and refugees.

As Rome is the 2019 focus of World Refugee Day, The United Nations has organized a wide range of activities to commemorate the event. UNHCR activities in Rome include: “light shows, film screenings, lectures, panel discussions, food bazaars, fashion shows, cultural performances, concerts, sports contests…, tree planting competitions, speeches, poetry recitals and photography exhibitions”. An over-arching promotion designed to appeal towards the general public has also been organized, as “Rome’s ancient Colosseum will… be bathed in UN blue, one of many monuments around the world to be spotlit to mark the occasion, including the iconic Empire State Building in New York”.

According to Global Team Events, football is the most popular sport in Italy, with “more than 4,363,000 people” playing every year, and Calcio Finanza states that “in the last twelve months the Italian national team engaged slightly less than 140 million TV viewers”. Italy is taking advantage of the Italian passion and enthusiasm for football in its effort to promote World Refugee Day by “holding special football tournaments between citizens… and refugees and asylum-seekers in cooperation with local partner organizations”. Another example of sport being used as a mode in which dialogue can be initiated is with the Vatican cricket team. Read the UNESCO Chair’s article on “Evangelizing Culture Through Sport and Interreligious Dialogue: The Example of the Vatican Cricket Team” here: .

UNESCO Chair has a special interest in raising awareness for migrants and refugees in Europe, working both with Civic Dimensions for Social Inclusion (CivicAl) and with the European Citizens for Solidarity (EUROSOL). The aim of CivicAl “is to give to migrant and refugee adults access to civic education” with the purpose of integrating “more fully into the community”, while EUROSOL is committed to overcoming “the misconceptions regarding migrants and refugees in Italy”.

UNESCO Chair in Bioethics and Human Rights is committed to supporting and promoting human rights, as per our work in Bioethics, Multiculturalism and Religion, due to our belief that “humanity’s progress is always accompanied by a respect for human dignity and human rights”. This year’s World Refugee Day offers a unique opportunity for Italians, and people everywhere, to engage in an open and informed dialogue regarding migration and refugees, and UNESCO Chair in Bioethics and Human Rights encourages you to participate in World Refugee Day and the World Day of Migrants and Refugees this year.


Bernardini, Stefano. “Italian Football Team, a 2016 with 140m TV Viewers. 7.2 on Average with Ventura.” Calcio E Finanza. N.p., 31 Dec. 2016. Web. 11 June 2019.

“Civic Dimensions for Social Inclusion – CivicAL.” UNESCO Chair in Bioethics and Human Rights, 10 Nov. 2018,

“Goals, Objectives & Activities.” UNESCO Chair in Bioethics and Human Rights. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 June 2019.

“Poll: Only 50 Percent of Italians Call Themselves Catholic.” National Catholic Reporter. N.p., 30 Mar. 2016. Web. 11 June 2019.

“Pope’s Message for 2019 World Day of Migrants and Refugees: Full Text.” Vatican News. N.p., 27 May 2019. Web. 11 June 2019.

“Refugees, UNHCR, Displaced, Migrants, Migration, Asylum, Human Rights.” United Nations. United Nations, n.d. Web. 11 June 2019.

“Rome Focus of World Refugee Day.” RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 June 2019.

“Soccer in Italy – A Look at the Culture and History of Italy’s Most Popular Sport.” Global Team Soccer Tours, Tournaments & Events. N.p., 04 Apr. 2017. Web. 11 June 2019.

Leave No One Behind: Launch of 2019 GEM Report UNESCO

On Tuesday November 27th, the Global Education Monitoring Report on Migration, Displacement and Education was launched at Accademia dei Lincei in Rome. The event was hosted by UNESCO and opened a window on the education for migrants and refugee by analyzing what have...