Bioethical considerations for policymakers in businesses’ NeuroDI-Warfare.

Bioethical considerations for policymakers in businesses’ NeuroDI-Warfare.

On November 6th, our research scholar Mariel Kalkach Aparicio will participate in the session entitled “Business and the protection of the general interest and the citizen” part of the The Law, Justice and Development (LJD) Week 2019. 

Abstract

“In this session I will highlight some key components of the bioethical reflections made in research contexts which seem to be less considered in the real-world practices of business. I will focus on the challenges of policymaking within the business-consumer interaction; specifically, in the merging business activities of two types: monitoring of users’ digital trace and research in the form of Neuromarketing. Although there has been progress made in the discussion and regulation, I will argue that it is not enough specially in context of vulnerable populations. If these circumstances remain unchanged, the gap between developed economies and those in development could increase due to the use of technology.” – Mariel Kalkach Aparicio.

PROGRAM OF THE SESSION

 

Timing Speaker Topics addressed
10:00 – 10:04 Anne-Charlotte Gros Introductory remarks
10:04  -10:05 Anne-Charlotte Gros Speaker’s presentation and first question
10:05 – 10:13 Mariel Kalkach Bioethical considerations for policymakers in businesses’ Neuro-Digital-Info Warfare
10:13 – 10:14 Anne-Charlotte Gros Speaker’s presentation and second question
10:14 – 10:18 Louis-Bernard Buchman The protection of personal data : the example of the GDPR
10:18 – 10:19 Anne-Charlotte Gros Speaker’s presentation and third question
10:19 – 10:27 Frédéric Varin The fight against land grabbing in developing countries
10:27 –  10:28 Anne-Charlotte Gros Speaker’s presentation and fourth question
10:28 – 10:36 Jeffrey  Schlagenhauf (To be confirmed) 1) The Work of the OECD Centre for Responsible Business Conduct 2) The Human Centered Business Model
10:36 – 10:37 Anne-Charlotte Gros Fifth question
10:37 – 10:41 Louis-Bernard Buchman The duty of vigilance
10:41 – 10:42 Anne-Charlotte Gros Speaker’s presentation and sixth question
10:42 – 10:50 Stéphane de Navacelle

 

1) The recognition of the social and environmental interest of companies 2) The protection of whistleblowers 3) The fight against corruption
10:50  – 10:51 Anne-Charlotte Gros Speaker’s presentation and seventh question
10:51 – 10:59 Marie-Florence Zampiero-Bouquemont

 

The fight against money laundering
10:59 -11:00 Anne-Charlotte Gros Concluding remarks
Robotics and Law

Robotics and Law

On Friday 24 May, our Chair fellow P. Alberto Carrara, L.C. with  Avv. Emanuela Cerasella, coordinator of the GdN subgroup on neurolaw, is organizing a conference entitled Robotics and Law. This event is within the Neurobioethics Masterclass.  Among the participants there will be the Magistrate Dr. Giuseppe Corasaniti, a well-known scholar and expert on issues related to the legal problems in regards of information.

Law and Life: dignity in living and dying between informed consent, advance treatment provisions and the ordinance n.207 of 2018 of the Constitutional Court

Law and Life: dignity in living and dying between informed consent, advance treatment provisions and the ordinance n.207 of 2018 of the Constitutional Court

On Friday 5 April (15: 30-19: 00, Master Classroom, 1st floor) the Group of Neurobioethics, coordinated by our Chair fellow Fr. Alberto Carrara, L.C., is organizing an interdisciplinary dialogue entitled: Law and Life: dignity in living and dying between informed consent, advance treatment provisions and the ordinance n.207 of 2018 of the Constitutional Court. The speakers are: Avv. Emanuela Cerasella, Avv. Tania Cerasella, Dr. Francesco Ognibene, Dr. Suor Costanza Galli, Prof. Giuseppe Noia and Dr. Angelo Mainini.

Download the Italian Flyer

Program

15:30

Greetings from the Academic Authorities

Presentation

Prof. Father Alberto Carrara, L.C.

(Coordinator GdN, Corresponding Member of the Pontifical Academy for Life)

4:00 pm

Coordinates and introduces legal issues

Avv. Emanuela Cerasella

(Lawyer of the Court of Rome, patron of the Supreme Court of Cassation and other superior jurisdictions; coordinator of the neuro-law research and subgroup of the GdN)

16:30

“The sacredness of the good life and the centrality of the constitutional triad: life, person and dignity in the anticipated treatment provisions. Communication at the heart of DAT. Which legal institute recognize in the DAT? “

Avv. Tania Cerasella

(Advocate for the Court of Rome before the Supreme Court of Cassation and other higher jurisdictions, member of the GdN)

17:00

“Media: questions of life and death”

Dr. Francesco Ognibene

(Editor-in-chief of Avvenire, Coordinator of the weekly “E ‘Vita” insert)

17:30

“Palliative care as an antidote to euthanasia and therapeutic obstinacy, in the light of law n. 219/2017 “

Dr. Suor Costanza Galli

(Director of the complex palliative care unit – Tuscany North / West company)

18:00

“The boundaries of life in curing the incurables: always taking care of”

Prof. Giuseppe Noia

(Director, Perinatal Hospice – Center for Prenatal Palliative Care – S. Mother Teresa of Calcutta – Gemelli Hospital, Rome; President of the Heart Foundation in a Goccia-Onlus; President AIGOC)

18:30

“Born to live and born to die, the experience of care and assistance to people with advanced disease”

Dr. Angelo Mainini

(Health Director of the “Maddalena Grassi Foundation” in Milan)

19:00 Conclusions

Dr. Francesco Ognibene

Buffet

Lecturer: Prof. Stefano Mazzoleni from The BioRobotics Institute of Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa

Lecturer: Prof. Stefano Mazzoleni from The BioRobotics Institute of Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa

By Giulia Bovassi –

Gruppo di Ricerca interdisciplinare in Neurobioetica (GdN)

Masterclass in “Neurobioethics and Roboethics”, 2nd edition, 1st lesson
Lecturer: Prof. Stefano Mazzoleni from The BioRobotics Institute of Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa

 

Abstract

 

The second Masterclass in Neurobioethics “Neurobioethics and Roboethics”, which will be focused this year upon the proposals coming from robotics. Robotics is a large branch of study in continuous and rapid development, not only from the industrial perspective, but also from the medical, family and private ones. Man-machine hybridization has already come about, occupies numerous daily spaces, and raises the ethical and existential questions about what we have to say about this new identity.

GdN, in partnership with the UNESCO Chair in Bioethics and Human Rights and the Science and Faith Institute, hosted in the prestigious academic headquarters of the Pontifical Athenaeum Regina Apostolorum, has undertaken a watchful, refined interdisciplinary investigation, which will continue during this and the next four years, in order to achieve the best possible result in the professional, academic research, which is dedicated to the new questions that bioethics, philosophy, anthropology, medicine, engineering, law, theology, interreligious and multicultural sciences raise for the today’s man. The studies of the neurosurgeon Sergio Canavero regarding the human head transplantation, have created an intellectual sensation.

Dr. Stefano Mazzoleni, lecturer and Coordinator of the Bioengineering Laboratory of Rehabilitation, through his speech titled “Human-machine interaction: can robots and AI help improve our quality of life, particularly the quality of life of people with disability?”, guided the participants through the logic of robotic engineering applied to the user-help, referring especially to patients who face difficulties managing their daily routine due to their physical limits. The concern for these needs pushes biorobotics in the direction of service, which looks for the good man.
A similar interest in the applications and the ethics of robotics was born recently with the advent of a new engineering oriented to products’ usability, beyond the strictly industrial-mechanical context, to families and citizens’ homes. There is talk of the domestic usage of an entity built to enter into a relationship with the needs of man (an element which has been initially designed almost exclusively to accomplish difficult and complex industrial jobs).

The very origin of the term “robot”, derived from “robota“, refers to heavy work, an index of the nature inherent in the functional-collaborative interaction with human effort, a cooperation that does not (or should not) propose replacement for optimization, namely the efficiency that takes away dignity, but rather should support the thinking subject as the true protagonist. «Observing nature to understand its needs, in the wake of what Leonardo da Vinci has done», educating future engineers in the renaissance model of their profession, so that, seeing trauma or disability, they understand how to take the opportunity to put individual skills at service of others. This fundamental assumption of biorobotics, which has close to its heart the dignity and the good of the person, is absolutely essential; it is indispensable because, without such trajectories, the “ability to make” surrenders to the causes of its birth, namely the “creating know-how” gains the probability of destroying / threatening mankind, a risk that is considered to be therefore acceptable. Cinematography and literature on biorobotics, since the ’80s and decisively surging in the 2000s, suggests new goals. Since 2000, through «bio-inspiration» many capacities not previously explored has taken shape: generation of movement through sensors; wondering why, observing natural and animal bodies to overcome their limits through robotic replication. This progress has led from rigid robotics to neurorobotics and “soft robotics.

Currently, biorobotics explains the medical implant of organs and artificial limbs where they are absent, bringing in close contact doctors, researchers, scientists, engineers whose work will be a qualitative improvement of the life of patients for whom biorobotics will be an advantage. For example, the robotic hand, whose functioning Dr. Mazzoleni has highlighted, and which could be summarized in the interception of the electric impulse, thanks to the study of nerve signals, referring to the intentionality of moving the robotic hand as the human one usually moves. Biorobotics also promises benefits such as smaller incisions, shorter hospitalization, reduced risk of infection, less pain, faster healing times.

Asimov’s “I, Robot” presents a futuristic dystopian vision of distant worlds in which the natural and artificial cohabit a single body, a single identity or dimension. Such works move the collective imagination between nightmare and dream, fear and hope. On the one hand, the expert responds by releasing us from the anxieties related to robot’s autonomy, the exit from the calculated control, the serenity that derives from the construction of a humanoid machine, which can act (according to the dictates of the human) but it is not able to want since they learn what their creator wants to let them know.

 

Considering the robot as a tool does not scare, but to think of it as similar to the human species does frighten. Prof. Mazzoleni spoke of the “Uncanny valley“, a perturbing valley, a “sudden fall” in that place where we lose the serene familiarity with objects which have a human appearance. The technical aspects and scientific disciplines treated so far have noted the positive contributions of the relationship between man and machine, but they do not remove that feeling of extraneousness and uncertainty. In this context, bioethics is called to take a buffer function thanks to the critical and rational reflection that the dialogue between research fields, near or far, can build when the object is a subject, i.e. the human being. It encourages the beneficial contribution that robotics, together with artificial intelligence, are making and are destined to cultivate. Preventive ethical vigilance should not degenerate into the trivialization of itself. Instead it is necessary to consider the hypothesis that not all philosophical-scientific movements have close to heart the integral good of the human being, so acting according to the measure of the productive, empowering or efficient advantage, even if this should force us to consider the human being as an entity not dissimilar to what everyone wants to find in his own nature, which is as a bastion of innovation. Conversing about the irreplaceable nature of the human presence in collaboration with technology is the proactive strategy implemented by this first, very rich, appointment, whose spirit resides exactly in living what we know, together with what remains ahead.

Neuroethical Considerations of Artificial Intelligence

Neuroethical Considerations of Artificial Intelligence

 

SOPHIA, a humanoid robot produced by the company of “Hanson Robotics”, was activated and presented to the world in 2016. In 2017 it receives citizenship in Saudi Arabia. For the last session of the year, BINCA prepared a particularly controversial subject.

For more infromation contact: mariel.kalkach@anahuac.mx